Selected Publications from Patterson and co-workers (see below for full publication list)

CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists


Morphology plays an essential role in chemistry through the segregation of atoms and/or molecules into different phases, delineated by interfaces. This is a general process in materials synthesis and exploited in many fields including colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, and functional molecular systems. To rationally design complex materials, we must understand and control morphology evolution. Toward this goal, we utilize cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), which can track the structural evolution of materials in solution with nanometer spatial resolution and a temporal resolution of <1 s.

Observing the Growth of Metal–Organic Frameworks by in Situ Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy


Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) can provide direct observations of solution-phase nanoscale materials, and holds great promise as a tool for monitoring dynamic self-assembled nanomaterials. Control over particle behavior within the liquid cell, and under electron beam irradiation, is of paramount importance for this technique to contribute to our understanding of chemistry and materials science at the nanoscale. However, this type of control has not been demonstrated for complex, organic macromolecular materials, which form the basis for all biological systems and all of polymer science, and encompass important classes of advanced porous materials. Here we show that by controlling the liquid cell membrane surface chemistry and electron beam conditions, the dynamics and growth of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) can be observed. 

Full Publication list

37.         Denny, M. S., Parent, L. R., Patterson, J. P., Meena, S. K., Pham, H., Abellan, P., Ramasse, Q. M., Paesani, F., Gianneschi, N. C. & Cohen, S. M. Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals Deposition of Metal Oxide Coatings onto Metal–Organic Frameworks. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 140, 1348-1357, doi:10.1021/jacs.7b10453 (2018).

36.         Ianiro, A., Patterson, J. P., González García, Á., van Rijt, M. M. J., Hendrix, M. M. R. M., Sommerdijk, N. A. J. M., Voets, I. K., Esteves, A. C. C. & Tuinier, R. A roadmap for poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-ε-caprolactone self-assembly in water: Prediction, synthesis, and characterization. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 56, 330-339, doi:10.1002/polb.24545 (2018).

35.         Leriche, G., Cifelli, J. L., Sibucao, K. C., Patterson, J. P., Koyanagi, T., Gianneschi, N. C. & Yang, J. Characterization of drug encapsulation and retention in archaea-inspired tetraether liposomes. Org. Biomol. Chem. 15, 2157-2162, doi:10.1039/c6ob02832b (2017).

34.         Patterson, J. P*., Xu, Y., Moradi, M. A., Sommerdijk, N. & Friedrich, H. CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists. Accounts of Chemical Research 50, 1495-1501, doi:10.1021/acs.accounts.7b00107 (2017).

32.         Parent, L. R., Pham, C. H., Patterson, J. P., Denny, M. S., Jr., Cohen, S. M., Gianneschi, N. C. & Paesani, F. Pore Breathing of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 13973-13976, doi:10.1021/jacs.7b06585 (2017).

32.         Parent, L. R., Bakalis, E., Ramirez-Hernandez, A., Kammeyer, J. K., Park, C., de Pablo, J., Zerbetto, F., Patterson, J. P. & Gianneschi, N. C. Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 139, 17140-17151, doi:10.1021/jacs.7b09060 (2017).

Highlighted by

31.         Wright, D. B., Patterson, J. P., Gianneschi, N. C., Chassenieux, C., Colombani, O. & O'Reilly, R. K. Blending block copolymer micelles in solution; obstacles of blending. Polymer Chemistry 7, 1577-1583, doi:10.1039/c5py02006a (2016).

30.         Patterson, J. P., Parent, L. R., Cantlon, J., Eickhoff, H., Bared, G., Evans, J. E. & Gianneschi, N. C. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis 22, 507-514, doi:doi:10.1017/S1431927616000659 (2016).

Highlighted by ScienceDaily

29.         Li, Y. W., Huang, Y. R., Wang, Z., Carniato, F., Xie, Y. J., Patterson, J. P., Thompson, M. P., Andolina, C. M., Ditri, T. B., Millstone, J. E., Figueroa, J. S., Rinehart, J. D., Scadeng, M., Botta, M. & Gianneschi, N. C. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents. Small 12, 668-677, doi:10.1002/smll.201502754 (2016).

28.      Proetto, M. T., Anderton, C. R., Hu, D. H., Szymanski, C. J., Zhu, Z. H., Patterson, J. P., Kammeyer, J. K., Nilewski, L. G., Rush, A. M., Bell, N. C., Evans, J. E., Orr, G., Howell, S. B. & Gianneschi, N. C. Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy. ACS Nano 10, 4046-4054, doi:10.1021/acsnano.5b06477 (2016).

27.      Randolph, L. M., LeGuyader, C. L. M., Hahn, M. E., Andolina, C. M., Patterson, J. P., Mattrey, R. F., Millstone, J. E., Botta, M., Scadeng, M. & Gianneschi, N. C. Polymeric Gd-DOTA amphiphiles form spherical and fibril-shaped nanoparticle MRI contrast agents. Chemical Science 7, 4230-4236, doi:10.1039/c6sc00342g (2016).

26.      Patterson, J. P*., Collins, D. B., Michaud, J. M., Axson, J. L., Sultana, C. M., Moser, T., Dommer, A. C., Conner, J., Grassian, V. H., Stokes, M. D., Deane, G. B., Evans, J. E., Burkart, M. D., Prather, K. A. & Gianneschi, N. C. Sea Spray Aerosol Structure and Composition Using Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy. ACS Central Science 2, 40-47, doi:10.1021/acscentsci.5b00344 (2016).

Highlight by the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory

25.      Johnson, M. E., Shon, J., Guan, B. M., Patterson, J. P., Oldenhuis, N. J., Eldredge, A. C., Gianneschi, N. C. & Guan, Z. Fluorocarbon Modified Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethylenimine for siRNA Delivery. Bioconjugate Chemistry 27, 1784-1788, doi:10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.6b00216 (2016).

24.      Patterson, J. P., Abellan, P., Denny, M. S., Park, C., Browning, N. D., Cohen, S. M., Evans, J. E. & Gianneschi, N. C. Observing the Growth of Metal–Organic Frameworks by in Situ Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137, 7322-7328, doi:10.1021/jacs.5b00817 (2015).

Highlighted in Nature News and Reviews

Highlighted by ScienceDaily   

23. Barnhill, S. A., Bell, N. C., Patterson, J. P., Olds, D. P. & Gianneschi, N. C. Phase Diagrams of Polynorbornene Amphiphilic Block Copolymers in Solution. Macromolecules 48, 1152-1161, doi:10.1021/ma502163j (2015).

22.      Patterson, J. P., Proetto, M. T. & Gianneschi, N. C. Soft nanomaterials analysed by in situ liquid TEM: Towards high resolution characterisation of nanoparticles in motion. Perspectives in Science 6, 106-112, doi: (2015).

21.      Wright, D. B., Patterson, J. P., Pitto-Barry, A., Lu, A., Kirby, N., Gianneschi, N. C., Chassenieux, C., Colombani, O. & O’Reilly, R. K. The Copolymer Blending Method: A New Approach for Targeted Assembly of Micellar Nanoparticles. Macromolecules 48, 6516-6522, doi:10.1021/acs.macromol.5b01426 (2015).

20.      Wright, D. B., Patterson, J. P., Pitto-Barry, A., Cotanda, P., Chassenieux, C., Colombani, O. & O'Reilly, R. K. Tuning the aggregation behavior of pH-responsive micelles by copolymerization. Polymer Chemistry 6, 2761-2768, doi:10.1039/c4py01782j (2015).

19.      van de Put, M. W. P., Patterson, J. P., Bomans, P. H. H., Wilson, N. R., Friedrich, H., van Benthem, R., de With, G., O'Reilly, R. K. & Sommerdijk, N. Graphene oxide single sheets as substrates for high resolution cryoTEM. Soft Matter 11, 1265-1270, doi:10.1039/c4sm02587c (2015).

18.      Patterson, J. P., Robin, M. P., Chassenieux, C., Colombani, O. & O'Reilly, R. K. The analysis of solution self-assembled polymeric nanomaterials. Chemical Society Reviews 43, 2412-2425, doi:10.1039/C3CS60454C (2014).

17.      Hansell, C. F., Lu, A., Patterson, J. P. & O'Reilly, R. K. Exploiting the tetrazine-norbornene reaction for single polymer chain collapse. Nanoscale 6, 4102-4107, doi:10.1039/c3nr06706h (2014).

16.      Proetto, M. T., Rush, A. M., Chien, M. P., Baeza, P. A., Patterson, J. P., Thompson, M. P., Olson, N. H., Moore, C. E., Rheingold, A. L., Andolina, C., Millstone, J., Howell, S. B., Browning, N. D., Evans, J. E. & Gianneschi, N. C. Dynamics of Soft Nanomaterials Captured by Transmission Electron Microscopy in Liquid Water. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 1162-1165, doi:10.1021/ja408513m (2014).

15.      Phillips, D. J., Patterson, J. P., O'Reilly, R. K. & Gibson, M. I. Glutathione-triggered disassembly of isothermally responsive polymer nanoparticles obtained by nanoprecipitation of hydrophilic polymers. Polymer Chemistry 5, 126-131, doi:10.1039/c3py00991b (2014).

14.      Dyson, M. A., Sanchez, A. M., Patterson, J. P., O'Reilly, R. K., Sloan, J. & Wilson, N. R. A new approach to high resolution, high contrast electron microscopy of macromolecular block copolymer assemblies. Soft Matter 9, 3741-3749, doi:10.1039/c3sm27787a (2013).

13.      Patterson, J. P., Kelley, E. G., Murphy, R. P., Moughton, A. O., Robin, M. P., Lu, A., Colombani, O., Chassenieux, C., Cheung, D., Sullivan, M. O., Epps, T. H. & O’Reilly, R. K. Structural Characterization of Amphiphilic Homopolymer Micelles Using Light Scattering, SANS, and Cryo-TEM. Macromolecules 46, 6319-6325, doi:10.1021/ma4007544 (2013).

12.      Patterson, J. P., Cotanda, P., Kelley, E. G., Moughton, A. O., Lu, A., Epps, I. I. I. T. H. & O'Reilly, R. K. Catalytic Y-tailed amphiphilic homopolymers - aqueous nanoreactors for high activity, low loading SCS pincer catalysts. Polymer Chemistry 4, 2033-2039, doi:10.1039/C3PY21137A (2013).

11.      Petzetakis, N., Robin, M. P., Patterson, J. P., Kelley, E. G., Cotanda, P., Bomans, P. H. H., Sommerdijk, N., Dove, A. P., Epps, T. H. & O'Reilly, R. K. Hollow Block Copolymer Nanoparticles through a Spontaneous One-step Structural Reorganization. ACS Nano 7, 1120-1128, doi:10.1021/nn400272p (2013).

10.      Mastroianni, S. E., Patterson, J. P., O'Reilly, R. K. & Epps, T. H. Poly(methyl methacrylate-block-vinyl-m-triphenylamine): synthesis by RAFT polymerization and melt-state self-assembly. Soft Matter 9, 10146-10154, doi:10.1039/c3sm51806j (2013).

9.      Greenland, B. W., Bird, M. B., Burattini, S., Cramer, R., O'Reilly, R. K., Patterson, J. P., Hayes, W., Cardin, C. J. & Colquhoun, H. M. Mutual binding of polymer end-groups by complementary pi-pi-stacking: a molecular "Roman Handshake". Chem. Commun. 49, 454-456, doi:10.1039/c2cc35965k (2013).

8.      Patterson, J. P., Sanchez, A. M., Petzetakis, N., Smart, T. P., Epps, I. I. I. T. H., Portman, I., Wilson, N. R. & O'Reilly, R. K. A simple approach to characterizing block copolymer assemblies: graphene oxide supports for high contrast multi-technique imaging. Soft Matter 8, 3322-3328 (2012).

7.      McDonald, T. O., Martin, P., Patterson, J. P., Smith, D., Giardiello, M., Marcello, M., See, V., O'Reilly, R. K., Owen, A. & Rannard, S. Multicomponent Organic Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Studies in Biological Systems. Adv. Funct. Mater. 22, 2469-2478, doi:10.1002/adfm.201103059 (2012).

6.      McHale, R., Patterson, J. P., Zetterlund, P. B. & O'Reilly, R. K. Biomimetic radical polymerization via cooperative assembly of segregating templates. Nature Chemistry 4, 491-497, doi:10.1038/nchem.1331 (2012).

5.      Cotanda, P., Lu, A., Patterson, J. P., Petzetakis, N. & O'Reilly, R. K. Functionalized Organocatalytic Nanoreactors: Hydrophobic Pockets for Acylation Reactions in Water. Macromolecules 45, 2377-2384, doi:10.1021/ma2027462 (2012).

4.      Lu, A., Cotanda, P., Patterson, J. P., Longbottom, D. A. & O'Reilly, R. K. Aldol reactions catalyzed by L-proline functionalized polymeric nanoreactors in water. Chem. Commun. 48, 9699-9701, doi:10.1039/c2cc35170f (2012).

3.      Du, J. Z., Willcock, H., Patterson, J. P., Portman, I. & O'Reilly, R. K. Self-Assembly of Hydrophilic Homopolymers: A Matter of RAFT End Groups. Small 7, 2070-2080, doi:10.1002/smll.201100382 (2011).

2.      Williams, P. E., Moughton, A. O., Patterson, J. P., Khodabakhsh, S. & O'Reilly, R. K. Exploring RAFT polymerization for the synthesis of bipolar diblock copolymers and their supramolecular self-assembly. Polymer Chemistry 2, 720-729, doi:10.1039/c0py00359j (2011).

1.      Moughton, A. O., Patterson, J. P. & O'Reilly, R. K. Reversible morphological switching of nanostructures in solution. Chem. Commun. 47, 355-357, doi:10.1039/c0cc02160a (2011).