Selected Publications from Patterson and co-workers (see below for full publication list)

CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists


Morphology plays an essential role in chemistry through the segregation of atoms and/or molecules into different phases, delineated by interfaces. This is a general process in materials synthesis and exploited in many fields including colloid chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, and functional molecular systems. To rationally design complex materials, we must understand and control morphology evolution. Toward this goal, we utilize cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM), which can track the structural evolution of materials in solution with nanometer spatial resolution and a temporal resolution of <1 s.

Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation During Amphiphilic Self-Assembly

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The self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules in solution is a ubiquitous process in both natural and synthetic systems. The ability to effectively control the structure and properties of these systems is essential for tuning the quality of their functionality, yet the underlying mechanisms governing the transition from molecules to assemblies have not been fully resolved. Here we describe how amphiphilic self-assembly can be preceded by liquid–liquid phase separation. The assembly of a model block co-polymer system into vesicular structures was probed through a combination of liquid-phase electron microscopy, self-consistent field computations and Gibbs free energy calculations. This analysis shows the formation of polymer-rich liquid droplets that act as a precursor in the bottom-up formation of spherical micelles, which then evolve into vesicles. The liquid–liquid phase separation plays a role in determining the resulting vesicles’ structural properties, such as their size and membrane thickness, and the onset of kinetic traps during self-assembly.

Full Publication list: For most up to date list and metrics see Google Scholar

44. YH Kim, G Leriche, K Diraviyam, T Koyanagi, K Gao, D Onofrei, JP Patterson, A Guha, N Gianneschi, GP Holland, MK Gilson, M Mayer, D Sept, J Yang. Entropic Effects Enable Life at Extreme Temperatures. Science Advances 2019, 5(5)

43. KR Fruhauf, T Kim, EL Nelson, JP Patterson SW Wang, KJ Shea. Metabolite Responsive Nanoparticle-Protein Complex. Biomacromolecules 2019

42. DB Wright, A Ramírez-Hernándex, MA Touve, AS Carlini, MP Thompson, JP Patterson, JJ de Pablo, NC Gianneschi. Enzyme Induced Kinetic Control of Peptide-Polymer Micelle Morphology. ACS Macro Lett 2019, 8:676-681.

41. A. Ianiro, Á. García, S. Wijker, JP Patterson. A. Esteves, R. Tuinier. Controlling the Spatial Distribution of Solubilized Compounds within Copolymer Micelles. Langmuir 2019, 35(13): 4776-4786.

40.       G Polido, X Shi, D Xu, C Guo, R Thai, JP Patterson, NC Gianneschi, TM Suchyna, F Sachs, GP Holland. Investigating the interaction of Grammostola rosea venom peptides and model lipid bilayers with solid-state NMR and electron microscopy techniques. Biochim Biophys Acta, Biomembr 2019, 1861(1): 151-160.

39.       T Li, H Wu, J Ihli, Z Ma, F Krumeich, PHH Bomans, NAJM Sommerdijk, H Friedrich, JP Patterson*, JA van Bokhoven*. Cryo-TEM and electron tomography reveal leaching-induced pore formation in ZSM-5 zeolite. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2019, 7(4): 1442-1446.

38.       A Ianiro, H Wu, MMJ van Rijt, MP Vena, ADA Keizer, ACC Esteves, R Tuinier, H Friedrich, N Sommerdijk*, JP Patterson*. Liquid-liquid phase separation during amphiphilic self-assembly. Nat Chem 2019.

37.       G Santagiuliana, OT Picot, M Crespo, H Porwal, H Zhang, Y Li, L Rubini, S Colonna, A Fina, E Barbieri, AB Spoelstra, G Mirabello, JP Patterson, L Botto, NM Pugno, T Peijs, E Bilotti. Breaking the Nanoparticle Loading-Dispersion Dichotomy in Polymer Nanocomposites with the Art of Croissant-Making. ACS Nano 2018, 12(9): 9040-9050.

36.       A Ianiro, J Patterson, Á González García, MMJ van Rijt, MMRM Hendrix, NAJM Sommerdijk, IK Voets, ACC Esteves, R Tuinier. A roadmap for poly(ethylene oxide)-block

35.       JP Patterson*, Y Xu, MA Moradi, N Sommerdijk*, H Friedrich*. CryoTEM as an Advanced Analytical Tool for Materials Chemists. Acc Chem Res 2017, 50(7): 1495-1501.

34.       LR Parent, CH Pham, JP Patterson, MS Denny, Jr., SM Cohen, NC Gianneschi, F Paesani. Pore Breathing of Metal-Organic Frameworks by Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2017, 139(40): 13973-13976.

33.       LR Parent, E Bakalis, A Ramirez-Hernandez, JK Kammeyer, C Park, J de Pablo, F Zerbetto, JP Patterson, NC Gianneschi. Directly Observing Micelle Fusion and Growth in Solution by Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2017, 139(47): 17140-17151.

32.       G Leriche, JL Cifelli, KC Sibucao, JP Patterson, T Koyanagi, NC Gianneschi, J Yang. Characterization of drug encapsulation and retention in archaea-inspired tetraether liposomes. Org Biomol Chem 2017, 15(10): 2157-2162.

31.       DB Wright, JP Patterson, NC Gianneschi, C Chassenieux, O Colombani, RK O'Reilly. Blending block copolymer micelles in solution; Obstacles of blending. Polym Chem 2016, 7(8): 1577-1583.

30.       LM Randolph, CLM LeGuyader, ME Hahn, CM Andolina, JP Patterson, RF Mattrey, JE Millstone, M Botta, M Scadeng, NC Gianneschi. Polymeric Gd-DOTA amphiphiles form spherical and fibril-shaped nanoparticle MRI contrast agents. Chem Sci 2016, 7(7): 4230-4236.

29.       MT Proetto, CR Anderton, D Hu, CJ Szymanski, Z Zhu, JP Patterson, JK Kammeyer, LG Nilewski, AM Rush, NC Bell, JE Evans, G Orr, SB Howell, NC Gianneschi. Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy. ACS Nano 2016, 10(4): 4046-4054.

28.       JP Patterson, LR Parent, J Cantlon, H Eickhoff, G Bared, JE Evans, NC Gianneschi. Picoliter Drop-On-Demand Dispensing for Multiplex Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy. Microsc Microanal 2016, 22(3): 507-514.

27.       JP Patterson*, DB Collins, JM Michaud, JL Axson, CM Sultana, T Moser, AC Dommer, J Conner, VH Grassian, MD Stokes, GB Deane, JE Evans, MD Burkart, KA Prather, NC Gianneschi. Sea Spray Aerosol Structure and Composition Using Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy. ACS Cent Sci 2016, 2(1): 40-47.

26.       Y Li, Y Huang, Z Wang, F Carniato, Y Xie, JP Patterson, MP Thompson, CM Andolina, TB Ditri, JE Millstone, JS Figueroa, JD Rinehart, M Scadeng, M Botta, NC Gianneschi. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents. Small 2016, 12(5): 668-677.

25.       ME Johnson, J Shon, BM Guan, JP Patterson, NJ Oldenhuis, AC Eldredge, NC Gianneschi, Z Guan. Fluorocarbon Modified Low-Molecular-Weight Polyethylenimine for siRNA Delivery. Bioconjug Chem 2016, 27(8): 1784-1788.

24.       DB Wright, JP Patterson, A Pitto-Barry, A Lu, N Kirby, NC Gianneschi, C Chassenieux, O Colombani, RK O'Reilly. The Copolymer Blending Method: A New Approach for Targeted Assembly of Micellar Nanoparticles. Macromolecules 2015, 48(18): 6516-6522.

23.       DB Wright, JP Patterson, A Pitto-Barry, P Cotanda, C Chassenieux, O Colombani, RK O'Reilly. Tuning the aggregation behavior of pH-responsive micelles by copolymerization. Polym Chem 2015, 6(14): 2761-2768.

22.       MW van de Put, JP Patterson, PH Bomans, NR Wilson, H Friedrich, RA van Benthem, G de With, RK O'Reilly, NA Sommerdijk. Graphene oxide single sheets as substrates for high resolution cryoTEM. Soft Matter 2015, 11(7): 1265-1270.

21.       JP Patterson, MT Proetto, NC Gianneschi. Soft nanomaterials analysed by in situ liquid TEM: Towards high resolution characterisation of nanoparticles in motion. Perspectives in Science 2015, 6: 106-112.

20.       JP Patterson, P Abellan, MS Denny, Jr., C Park, ND Browning, SM Cohen, JE Evans, NC Gianneschi. Observing the growth of metal-organic frameworks by in situ liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. J Am Chem Soc 2015, 137(23): 7322-7328.

19.       SA Barnhill, NC Bell, JP Patterson, DP Olds, NC Gianneschi. Phase Diagrams of Polynorbornene Amphiphilic Block Copolymers in Solution. Macromolecules 2015, 48(4): 1152-1161.

18.       MT Proetto, AM Rush, MP Chien, P Abellan Baeza, JP Patterson, MP Thompson, NH Olson, CE Moore, AL Rheingold, C Andolina, J Millstone, SB Howell, ND Browning, JE Evans, NC Gianneschi. Dynamics of soft nanomaterials captured by transmission electron microscopy in liquid water. J Am Chem Soc 2014, 136(4): 1162-1165.

17.       DJ Phillips, JP Patterson, RK O'Reilly, MI Gibson. Glutathione-triggered disassembly of isothermally responsive polymer nanoparticles obtained by nanoprecipitation of hydrophilic polymers. Polym Chem 2014, 5(1): 126-131.

16.       JP Patterson, MP Robin, C Chassenieux, O Colombani, RK O'Reilly. The analysis of solution self-assembled polymeric nanomaterials. Chem Soc Rev 2014, 43(8): 2412-2425.

15.       CF Hansell, A Lu, JP Patterson, RK O'Reilly. Exploiting the tetrazine-norbornene reaction for single polymer chain collapse. Nanoscale 2014, 6(8): 4102-4107.

14.       N Petzetakis, MP Robin, JP Patterson, EG Kelley, P Cotanda, PH Bomans, NA Sommerdijk, AP Dove, TH Epps, 3rd, RK O'Reilly. Hollow block copolymer nanoparticles through a spontaneous one-step structural reorganization. ACS Nano 2013, 7(2): 1120-1128.

13.       JP Patterson, EG Kelley, RP Murphy, AO Moughton, M Robin, A Lu, O Colombani, C Chassenieux, D Cheung, MO Sullivan, TH Epps, 3rd, RK O'Reilly. Structural characterization of amphiphilic homopolymer micelles using light scattering, SANS, and cryo-TEM. Macromolecules 2013, 46(15): 6319-6325.

12.       JP Patterson, P Cotanda, EG Kelley, AO Moughton, A Lu, TH Epps, 3rd, RK O'Reilly. Catalytic Y-tailed amphiphilic homopolymers - aqueous nanoreactors for high activity, low loading SCS pincer catalysts. Polym Chem 2013, 4(6): 2033-2039.

8.         JP Patterson, AM Sanchez, N Petzetakis, TP Smart, TH Epps, 3rd, I Portman, NR Wilson, RK O'Reilly. A simple approach to characterizing block copolymer assemblies: graphene oxide supports for high contrast multi-technique imaging. Soft Matter 2012, 8(12): 3322-3328.

11.       SE Mastroianni, JP Patterson, RK O'Reilly, TH Epps. Poly(methyl methacrylate-block-vinyl-m-triphenylamine): synthesis by RAFT polymerization and melt-state self-assembly. Soft Matter 2013, 9(42): 10146-10154.

10.       BW Greenland, MB Bird, S Burattini, R Cramer, RK O'Reilly, JP Patterson, W Hayes, CJ Cardin, HM Colquhoun. Mutual binding of polymer end-groups by complementary pi-pi-stacking: a molecular "Roman Handshake". Chem Commun (Camb) 2013, 49(5): 454-456.

9.         MA Dyson, AM Sanchez, JP Patterson, RK O'Reilly, J Sloan, NR Wilson. A new approach to high resolution, high contrast electron microscopy of macromolecular block copolymer assemblies. Soft Matter 2013, 9(14): 3741-3749.

7.         R McHale, JP Patterson, PB Zetterlund, RK O'Reilly. Biomimetic radical polymerization via cooperative assembly of segregating templates. Nat Chem 2012, 4(6): 491-497.

6.         TO McDonald, P Martin, JP Patterson, D Smith, M Giardiello, M Marcello, V See, RK O'Reilly, A Owen, S Rannard. Multicomponent Organic Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Studies in Biological Systems. Adv Funct Mater 2012, 22(12): 2469-2478.

5.         A Lu, P Cotanda, JP Patterson, DA Longbottom, RK O'Reilly. Aldol reactions catalyzed by L-proline functionalized polymeric nanoreactors in water. Chem Commun (Camb) 2012, 48(78): 9699-9701.

4.         P Cotanda, A Lu, JP Patterson, N Petzetakis, RK O'Reilly. Functionalized Organocatalytic Nanoreactors: Hydrophobic Pockets for Acylation Reactions in Water. Macromolecules 2012, 45(5): 2377-2384.

3.         PE Williams, AO Moughton, JP Patterson, S Khodabakhsh, RK O'Reilly. Exploring RAFT polymerization for the synthesis of bipolar diblock copolymers and their supramolecular self-assembly. Polym Chem 2011, 2(3): 720-729.

2.         AO Moughton, JP Patterson, RK O'Reilly. Reversible morphological switching of nanostructures in solution. Chem Commun (Camb) 2011, 47(1): 355-357.

1.         J Du, H Willcock, JP Patterson, I Portman, RK O'Reilly. Self-assembly of hydrophilic homopolymers: a matter of RAFT end groups. Small 2011, 7(14): 2070-2080.